How Did Graphic Design Came to be Part Two
The paintings of the Lascaux cave (in the Dordogne, 18,000 and 15,000 BC) and the birth of writing (in Mesopotamia at Sumer, around 3500 BC) can be considered as foundational elements of visual communication. Subsequently, what will become the graphics will follow the human evolution and in particular that of writing, then that of the dissemination of images.
The Age of Classical Graphics
During a period that goes from 700 B.C. until the late 1970s, the history of printing and typographic writing corresponds to a graphic expression essentially built around the letter: Phoenician writing (1200-1100 BC), the Roman capital, then the tiny Carolina, the Gothic calligraphy then the Gothic typography used by Johannes Gutenberg (around 1440).
The Bible that he created in 1444-1445 in Mainz is the first great work done with this new technology that is printing by movable metal characters. Its invention did allow for a wider dissemination of books, which was previously impossible.
In the 20th century, industrialization, consumer society, the emergence of new media, marketing and advertising, but also the development of related disciplines (design and architecture) promoted the emergence of a new type of skilled jobs in graphic design.
The graphic designer became the one who formalizes and clarifies a communication message, then graphically puts it on the page. Putting in turn his intellect then his graphic creativity at the service of an order, «the graphic designer» is then less considered as a craftsman.
South America is no exception, with for example the Argentine graphic artist Norah Borges.
In 1950, the International Graphic Alliance was founded in Basel, from that time on, then in the 1960s and 1970s, with the development of advertising, saw a huge turn in the history of graphic design towards globalization and commercialization.