Typography is the practise and technique of organising form to improve the readability of written text. It is the duty of a designer and entails much more than just keeping the terms legible. The typeface you choose and how you integrate it into your layout, table, simple colour schemes, graphic style, and other elements will make the difference between a mediocre, bad, and excellent design.  

Understanding vital typographic rules and definitions is the first step in becoming a good typographer. The letter is the most fundamental and critical feature of typography, and each letter of the alphabet is characterised by its distinct shape, or letter type. As a result, some fundamental knowledge is needed.  

Important Terms in Typographic Anatomy  

Baseline of a Text 

It is a line that is not apparent and is where all of the letters are located. Descenders on letters like g or p stretch down below the baseline, while angled letters like c or o extend only a smidgeon below the baseline. It is the starting point for measuring other form elements such as x-height and leading. It also plays an important role in the alignment of drop caps and other page features.  

Cap line or Cap Height 

It is the fictitious line that denotes the upper boundary of capital letters and the descender of certain lowercase letters. The line above the baseline over which capital letter types stretch. It refers to the height of flat capital letter shapes.  

Maximum X-height 

X-Height refers to the vertical area available for the lowercase "x" of every typeface. In other words, it is the difference created by the baseline and mean line of the body of lowercase characters. Fonts with higher X-heights are easier to decipher, so X-Height is important in the form of font shapes. Since maximum x-height means maximum readability, designers can use a typeface with maximum x-height.  

Lowercase Ascender 

It is an upward vertical stroke that is mainly made up of lowercase letters and reaches past the x-height of the typeface. That is the portion of a letter that stretches past the top of the mean line, such as the letters 'b,' 'd,' 'f,' 'h,' 'k,' and so on.  

Descender in Typography 

It is a downward vertical stroke that stretches below the baseline and is commonly used on lowercase letters. It is the part of a letter that stretches below the baseline, such as the letters 'g,' 'j,' 'p,' 'q,' and 'y.' 

Leading or Line Spacing 

It is the vertical space between text lines. In other words, it is the spacing between sentenced text which is also known as the Line Height. It is important to lead. It may have a direct effect on the readability of long blocks of text. When you reduce the leading, lines get closer together, making a block of text look more compacted. Reducing the amount of leading will allow descenders and ascenders to clash, which can reduce readability.

When the leading is raised, the speed of the text is slowed and more white space is added. When reading those text lines, it gives you a comfortable feeling. If you lead so far, it can lead to continuity problems.