The history of typography is closely linked to the history and development of printing, with which it merges, since the sixth century with its appearance in China, used by the Arabs in the tenth century, the paper contribution by Muslims in Valencia during the eleventh century, then the appearance of movable type in terracotta in the eleventh century in China and metal in the thirteenth century in Korea.  

The use of these techniques in Europe by Gutenberg and his followers, allowed the evolution to slowly continue towards Latin characters.  

However, since the nineteenth century, the development of typography increased in pace, with the development of newspapers and reading, thanks to the generalization of public education. Machines produce faster, manual composition gives way to mechanized composition. At the end of the twentieth century, typography as a printing technique lost its supremacy in favor of offset, but typography as a creation of type design is experiencing a new boom thanks to digital techniques. 

Typographers were workers who necessarily could read and write (which was not always the case in other trades), and they were often carriers and propagators of new ideas, even of social movements.  

Since the 2010s, typography has regained a resurgence of interest, highlighting the traditional defects now appreciated for their vintage effect: treading, hollowing out of the paper under the effect of the pressure on the characters in relief, henceforth called "debossing", can be accentuated by the use of very bulky papers and even be carried out with a special cliché. Debossing involves printing only the front side of the paper, thus reserving this technique for small runs.  

Typographic letterpress no longer uses traditional lead type, which required the storage of a large number of scrap items and skilled typographers. The documents are produced by computer and transformed into photos in relief using photopolymer. The machines used for printing are older letterpress presses, platinum presses, and the printing is often performed in a three-color palette (cyan, magenta, yellow). 

Composition  

Manual composition 

The typographer uses a composter on which he lines up the characters, engraved upside down, from left to right, in a natural sense of reading, drawn from a wooden box called a scrapyard. The upper case characters are called the capitals (upper case), and those at the bottom the lower case. The composter makes it possible to ensure the justification of the line, that is to say, its length. A space note is inserted between two words, and then completed by inserting thin spaces between the letters in order to perfect the justification.  

Once the lines are composed, they are placed on a galley, kept at an angle. These lines are attached with several turns of string in order to make the whole unit easily manageable. This block of lines called composition is wedged in a cast iron frame using wooden wedges first, and then with clamp nuts. Then, the typographer can insert lines, empty spaces, typographic ornaments, or photos from the photoengraving near the text. The frame is then fixed on a printing press. 

Typography workshops still make it possible to carry out certain jobs in small quantities (business cards, writing paper, announcements) at a lower cost, as well as cutting, creasing, gilding, and embossing. 

Automated composition 

The typography was then automated with the Linotype, then the Monotype, semi-automated with the Ludlow Typograph which made it possible to directly blend letters or lines composed of a single piece. 

In this method of composition, hollow molds corresponding to each letter (and space) are assembled automatically (by typing on a keyboard as on a typewriter) then the typographic lead is poured over it in a mold, forming a block of an entire line of characters (linotype) or separate characters (monotype). 

The history of typography is closely linked to the history and development of printing, with which it merges, since the sixth century with its appearance in China, used by the Arabs in the tenth century, the paper contribution by Muslims in Valencia during the eleventh century, then the appearance of movable type in terracotta in the eleventh century in China and metal in the thirteenth century in Korea.  

The use of these techniques in Europe by Gutenberg and his followers, allowed the evolution to slowly continue towards Latin characters.  

However, since the nineteenth century, the development of typography increased in pace, with the development of newspapers and reading, thanks to the generalization of public education. Machines produce faster, manual composition gives way to mechanized composition. At the end of the twentieth century, typography as a printing technique lost its supremacy in favor of offset, but typography as a creation of type design is experiencing a new boom thanks to digital techniques. 

Typographers were workers who necessarily could read and write (which was not always the case in other trades), and they were often carriers and propagators of new ideas, even of social movements.  

Since the 2010s, typography has regained a resurgence of interest, highlighting the traditional defects now appreciated for their vintage effect: treading, hollowing out of the paper under the effect of the pressure on the characters in relief, henceforth called "debossing", can be accentuated by the use of very bulky papers and even be carried out with a special cliché. Debossing involves printing only the front side of the paper, thus reserving this technique for small runs.  

Typographic letterpress no longer uses traditional lead type, which required the storage of a large number of scrap items and skilled typographers. The documents are produced by computer and transformed into photos in relief using photopolymer. The machines used for printing are older letterpress presses, platinum presses, and the printing is often performed in a three-color palette (cyan, magenta, yellow).